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Among these were two bronze hooks shaped as animal heads, found in a position just below the knees. Eine im Birkamaterial ganz einzig dastehende Erscheinung ist ein Paar tierkopfförmiger Bronzehaken, die wir versuchsweise Gamaschenschlüsse nennen wollen.Die unverrückte Lage im Grab 905 ergibt, dass die Haken Wickelgamaschen oder Unterbeinkleider aus starkem Wollstoff festgehalten haben, die in den leinenen Beinkleidern eingehakt wurden, welch letztere über das Knie hinabreichten.Archaeology is a bit like putting together a puzzle that has lots of pieces missing.And while being an archaeologist is sometimes like being a treasure hunter, it's a lot more like being a detective.This article represents my attempt to collect archaeological facts, and interpretations of the leg wear worn by the Vikings.I have chosen to focus on the larger garments used to clothe the legs (and the occasional sock), and will leave the discussion of leg windings to another time.One of the largest known species of bear, the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus), ranged widely through Eurasia all the way to the Mediterranean in the south and to the Caucasus Mountains and northern Iran ...

First, archaeologists know that people need certain things to help them stay alive.

One of the tusks was vertical, penetrating the older sedimentary layers as if someone had stuck it upright in the ground. The kinds of breakage found were not consistent with a carnivore munching on the bones, or with a herd of heavy beasties trampling the unfortunate mastodon, alive or dead.

The team, which has grown over the years as the initial researchers added colleagues from other disciplines, claims that the damage to the bones is the same as breakage found in 1.5 million-year-old elephant bones in Africa that were processed by hominins.

The excavation of Birka was mainly conducted in the 1870s by Hjalmar Stolpe.

Although Stolpe made fairly accurate drawings of the different graves, textiles was not considered to be important at the time, and was omitted from the drawings.

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